Malaysia My Destination : Info about Tourist Attraction and Destination Guide
 
Kuala Lumpur : Malaysia Capital - Tourist Attraction and Destination Guide
Putrajaya : Federal Territory - Malaysia
Selangor : Central Region Of Peninsular Malaysia - Tourist Attraction and Destination Guide
 
Terengganu : East Coast Region Of Peninsular Malaysia - Tourist Attraction and Destination Guide
 
  Welcome
  Getting There
  Getting Around
 
  Terengganu Map 1
  Terengganu Map 2
  Kuala Terengganu Map
 
  Visit Terengganu
  Discover Terengganu
  The Ultimate Destination
 
  Unique Homestays
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ARTS & CULTURE
  Traditional Games & Pastimes
  Traditional Music & Dance
   
HISTORY & HERITAGE
  Terengganu History
  The 19th Century
  The 20th Century
  The Age Of Commerce
 
  The Inscribed Stone
 
  Traditional Boat Building
  Malay Exotic Wooden
  Royal Treasures
  The Chinese Village
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HANDICRAFTS
  Malay Handicrafts
  Batik, Songket & Silk
  Brassware & Wood Carving
  Mengkuang & Pandanus Weaving
  Keris (Blade) Making
  Rattan & Bamboo Product
  Traditional Wau / Kite Making
   
PLACES OF INTEREST
 
  Must Visit Places
 
ISLANDS HOLIDAYS
  Islands Of Terengganu
  Pulau Perhentian Island
  Pulau Lang Tengah Island
  Pulau Redang Island
  Pulau Bidong Island
  Pulau Kapas & Gemia Island
  Pulau Tenggol Island
 
  Beach Holidays
  Recreational Forest
 
TASIK KENYIR (LAKE)
  General Info
  Herbs Park & Kelah Sanctuary
  Adventure Nature
  Tanjong Mentong (Taman Negara)
  Houseboat Holidays
 
  Getting There
  Map
   
KUALA TERENGGANU
  Around The City
  Islamic Civilization Park
  Batu Burok Beach
  Chendering
  The Museum
  Sungai Terengganu River Cruise
   
MARANG
  Overview
   
DUNGUN
  Overview
  Chemerong Waterfall
  Rantau Abang (Turtle Nesting)
   
KEMAMAN
  Overview
   
HULU TERENGGANU
  Overview
  Ajil Pheasant Park
  Berang River Safari
  Sekayu Waterfall (Must Visit)
   
SETIU
  Overview
   
KUALA BESUT
  Overview
  Lata Belatan Recreational Forest
  Lata Berangin & La Hot Springs
  Lata Tembakah Waterfall
 
Kelantan : East Coast Region Of Peninsular Malaysia - Tourist Attraction and Destination Guide
Pahang : East Coast Region Of Peninsular Malaysia - Tourist Attraction and Destination Guide
 
Johor / Johore : Southern Region Of Peninsular Malaysia - Tourist Attraction and Destination Guide
Malacca / Melaka : Southern Region Of Peninsular Malaysia - Tourist Attraction and Destination Guide
Negeri Sembilan / The Nine State : Southern Region Of Peninsular Malaysia - Tourist Attraction and Destination Guide
 
Kedah (Langkawi) : Northern Region Of Peninsular Malaysia - Tourist Attraction and Destination Guide
Penang / Pulau Pinang : Northern Region Of Peninsular Malaysia - Tourist Attraction and Destination Guide
Perak : Northern Region Of Peninsular Malaysia - Tourist Attraction and Destination Guide
Perlis : Northern Region Of Peninsular Malaysia - Tourist Attraction and Destination Guide
 
Sabah : East Malaysia / Malaysian Borneo - Tourist Attraction and Destination Guide
Labuan (Federal Territory) : East Malaysia / Malaysian Borneo - Tourist Attraction and Destination Guide
Sarawak : East Malaysia / Malaysian Borneo - Tourist Attraction and Destination Guide
 
 
 
 
TERENGGANU - EAST COAST REGION OF PENINSULAR MALAYSIA
HISTORY & HERITAGE - The Age Of Commerce
 
 

The rise of long-distance trade between India and China in the early years of the Christian era marked the beginning of regular mercantile activities in the Malay Peninsula. Traders from India traveling on small ships usually stopped near the Isthmus of Kra and traveled overland to the east coast to continue their journey by ship. Then between the twelfth and the fifteenth centuries there was a flourishing of trade in the Malay Archipelago. Large Chinese and local merchant ships carried cargoes, which comprised of spices, luxury items, and coarse and fine ceramics produced in the kilns in Thailand, Vietnam and China. The people of Terengganu may well have furnished passing traders and even contributed some local products.

 

Wrecks of early trading ships have in recent years been found off Peninsular Malaysia?s east coast. There was buoyant trade in the Malay Archipelago after 1600 as a result of a resurgence of trade between Europe and China. A large community of Malay, Chinese and European traders arrived, facilitating exchange of commodities between the mainland and islands. The hub of regional trade was Melaka, which had fallen first to Portuguese and later Dutch control, patronized by hundreds of Malay and Chinese traders. We have detailed accounts of their activities well preserved in the records of the Dutch East India Company. This remarkable body of information preserved in the Melaka harbour-master?s records provides us a glimpse of the working of regional trade involving local people.

Map Of Outheast Asia in AD 1683 - Terengganu History & Heritage

Outheast Asia in AD 1683. Reproduced from Giacomo de Rossi?s, World Atlas, Mercurio Geografico. Southeast Asia was an international meeting ground where ships plying the East-West routes intermingled with vessels involved in busy intra-regional commerce.

 

Trade linking various ports and their hinterland led to exchange of food items for imported textiles, ironware, pots and pans, crockery and small items of finery throughout the archipelago. There were Javanese and Chinese traders carrying a trade in bulk commodities between Aceh and Java. Many Malay traders from Johor conducted a brisk trade involving numerous local products such as wax, tin, rattan, resin, and bird?s nests in exchange for rice, tamarind, salted eggs and onion between Patani and Kedah, which served as the northern terminus of trade with the mainland.

 

This trade flourished after 1641 when the Dutch in Melaka opened the Straits to indigenous traffic as long as the local traders paid a small tax and refrained from trading in tin in exchange for textiles with Indian traders who sought tin at the ports along the western coast of the peninsula. Traders from Terengganu were absent at the busy ports on the western coast in the seventeenth century.

 

They may, however, have ventured s far as Johor, where hundreds of ships were found to be engaged in a prosperous trade in the second half of the seventeenth century, and refrained from continuing the journey up the Straits. This state of affairs changed in the early years of the eighteenth century.

Ivory sword handle discovered in the hidden? compartment of the Royal Nanhai shipwreck - Terengganu Heritage

Ivory sword handle discovered in the hidden? compartment of the Royal Nanhai shipwreck.

 

Johor was embroiled in political strive after Tun Abdul Jamil?s fall from grace in 1688 and the death of Sultan Mahmud Syah in 1699. Johor was consequently cut off from Terengganu and some traders, who had been operating between Terengganu and Johor, now began to conduct trade with Terengganu from Melaka. From 1720 to 1770, we find a small number of traders - never more than fifteen a year - operating between Terengganu and Melaka on a regular basis. The Melaka harbour-master records listed, for instance, Kamar, a Malay from Melaka, who had been operating in Johor and finding it too risky to do any trade amidst political chaos, decided to try his fortune in Terengganu.

 

On his first trip there in August 1721, he did not take anything with him; on his return trip to Melaka in November, he brought three people from Terengganu and a cargo that consisted of rice, locally produced cloths and pots. Haijko, a Chinese trader, left Johor and visited Terengganu several times. In August 1721, he went there with a small cargo of cloths from Linggi, apparently a popular commodity in Terengganu, and brought back with him small quantities of rice and a large amount of sappan wood.

 
 

Chinese Artifact - Terengganu History & Heritage

?Longevity? plate from the Jingdezhen kilns Flower plate with chrysanthemums decoration ?Lion dog? plate from the Jingdezhen kilns. A lion dog dancing with ribbons appears on the centre medallion
 

The situation seems to have changed somewhat in a decade. In 1731, thirteen traders from Terengganu came to Melaka. There were several petty traders, Malays and Chinese, who were medium-size operators to judge from the size of the cargo. Imbo brought in from Terengganu 200 cups, 1,000 plates and a small amount of salt, of which only the latter was a local product. Alian, a Moor from Melaka, shipped in some pans and cloths, all produced locally. But Tonqua, brought in a large cargo, which consisted of 1,000 cups, 1,200 saucers, 300 cups of a different kind, 20 sets of pans, 15 lengths of cloths and 5 small boxes of gold dust. Where did the ceramics come from? It is possible that the old centres of ceramic production in Thailand still continued producing wares for local markets in the archipelago, but some Chinese traders doing business between Fujien and Terengganu cannot be ruled out.

 

Traders from Terengganu, or more likely traders from Johor, did supply imported ceramics from Terengganu to Johor, which distributed them to other parts of the archipelago before Johor?s trade declined in the l720s. Some Malay and Chinese traders who were involved in this profitable trade with Terengganu via Johor now decided to go directly to Terengganu to procure the ceramics and whatever commodities produced locally. Terengganu was becoming a market profitable enough to tempt even some local European traders such as Jacob de Roode, a prominent Dutch merchant in Melaka, who apparently pocketed a nice profit from selling 30 small boxes of gold dust and 30 sets of iron pans.

 

There is evidence of commercial links between Terengganu and the markets in the southern part of Thailand, which supplied exotic commodities in addition to the agricultural products and ceramic wares. Mahomet Hassum, a Moor trader based in Terengganu, was another merchant who conducted a large operation between Kedah and Terengganu. He used a large ship, Feysdalie, manned by a crew of 35 people and equipped with eight cannons, to convey a cargo which comprised of 10,000 cups, 15,000 plates and 500 sets of pans and 40 small boxes of gold dust from Terengganu to Kedah in late 1730. The ceramics were probably Chinese in origin and brought to Terengganu by Chinese traders from Fujien. Terengganu trade soon attracted another group of people, the English ?country traders; operating between India and China.

 

Sisatchanalai celadon jarlets from the Royal Nanhai shipwreck. The celadon glaze of the left-hand jarlet is white rather than green and this is perhaps the result of insufficient reduction during firing. The glaze of right-hand jarlet was properly reduced.

Sisatchanalai celadon jarlets from the Royal Nanhai shipwreck - Terengganu History & Heritage

 

For instance, George Middleton conveyed a cargo that consisted of elephant tusks and tin from Terengganu to Bengal in early 1730. So it seems Terengganu was a market of some importance. It had a lively trading link with the markets in southern Thailand and Chinese traders in Fujien. Before 1720, the regular mercantile activities of Terengganu were confined to the flourishing market of Johor, until Johor?s political upheavals opened up Terengganu to the traders from Melaka and elsewhere. The inhabitants of Terengganu supplied traders with what they produced as well as what commodities that came through the trade route overland.

 

Nevertheless, the number of traders operating between Terengganu and Melaka was relatively small, no more than twelve at most and most of them were outsiders, well into the early 1780s. The 1780s saw a great deal of change in commerce and politics in the Malay Archipelago. Trade between Europe and China was in full swing and many European ships now sailed to and from China through the Straits of Melaka. At long last even the remote parts of the peninsula such as Terengganu came to feel the influence of global commerce as the demand for food items and local products such as rattan, resin and jungle products increased considerably.

 

More and more European traders, both those of the English East India Company and the country traders, called at Terengganu on their way to and from China and some country traders such as Francis Light regularly visited Terengganu.   In 1787, more than a dozen ships came from Terengganu to Melaka and nine of them belonged to traders in Terengganu. They were a mixture of Chinese, Malay, Arab, Portuguese and English, suggesting that a small number of traders from outside had settled in Terengganu to exploit its lucrative trade in local and foreign commodities available in Terengganu.

 

The scale of trade remained relatively small and there was no significant change in the nature of cargo. Terengganu was significant in the regional trade, its commercial ties with the western part of the archipelago was largely through Johor and Melaka. But it was not exposed to the full impact of commercialization that swept across the region and hence preserved its traditional economic activities such as agriculture and fishing.

 
 
 
HISTORY & HERITAGE - The Age Of Commerce
TERENGGANU - EAST COAST REGION OF PENINSULAR MALAYSIA