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JOHOR - SOUTHERN REGION OF PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

PLACES OF INTEREST : NATURE & NATIONAL PARKS

Gunung Ledang - Wildlife Wonder & Floral

 
 

FLORA

GUNUNG LEDANG

FOREST RECREATIONAL PARK

 

Gunung Ledang?s vegetation can be broadly classified into four zones ? lowland dipterocarp forest, hill dipterocarp forest, lower montane forest and montane ericaceous forest. Floristically, there does not seem to be a well-defined oak-laurel forest zone separating the montane from the lower montane forests. This phenomenon seems to be normal for isolated mountains like Gunung Ledang, Gunung Jerai and Gunung Berlumut, but is not common on the larger ranges.

 

The lowland and hill forests are rich in valuable timber of the Dipterocarp family. Notable tree species include:

  • Shorea curtissi (Meranti Seraya)

  • S. maxwelliana (balau kumus hitam)

  • S. leprosula (meranti tembaga)

  • S. macroptera (meranti melantai)

  • Shorea ovalis (Meranti kepung)

  • Dipterocarpus comutus (keruing gombang)

 

Apart from this family, there are some good-size timber trees from other families such as Koompassia malaccensis (kempas) of the Leguminose family. On the upper reaches of the mountain, the vegetation is generally stunted and gnarled, with small-sized leaves with thick cuticles. The dominant species are the Leptosermum flavescens, characterized by their thick, branched, woody trunks and very low canopy. There are also some notable species of ferns, coniferous trees, orchid, nephentes (pitcher plants), shrub and herbal plants. Six rare and endemic plant species have been recorded here.

 
 
ORCHIDS - 45 Species
 

 
  • Arudina graminifolia

  • Eria bractescens

  • Phalaenopsis fuscata

  • Bromheadia sp

  • Paphiopedelium barbatum (Orkid Selipar)

 
 
PITCHER PLANT
 

 
  • Nepenthes rafflesiana

  • Nepenthes mirabilis

  • Nepenthes gracilis

  • Nepenthes albomarginata

  • Nepenthes sanguinea

  • Nepenthes hookeriana

  • Nepenthes ampullaria

 
 
OTHER FLOWERS
 

 
  • Rhododendiron jasminiflorum

  • Rhododendiron malayanum

  • Eria pulchella sp

  • Neuwiedia veritrifolia

  • Malaxis callophylla

  • Acriopsis javanica

  • Paphiopedillum barbatum

 
 

WILDLIFE

GUNUNG LEDANG

FOREST RECREATIONAL PARK

 
 
LARGE MAMMALS - 11 Species
 

 

Records of wildlife observation in Gunung Ledang date from Wallace?s 1854 study of the mountain. Large mammals such as tigers, leopards, Sumatran rhinoceros, elephants, tapir, serow and sambar deer were apparently common during his time until the early 19thcentury. Recent studies by the Wildlife Department (Perhilitan) on 1998 recorded eleven species of large mammal:

 

  • White handed gibbon (Hylobates lar sp)

  • Long tailed Macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

  • Dusky Leaf Monkey @ Lotong (Presbytis obscura)

  • Banded Leaf monkey (Presbytis melalophos)

  • Wild boar (Sus scrofa)

  • Barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak)

  • Tiger (Tigris corbetti)

  • Tapir

 
 
SMALL MAMMALS - 23 Species
 

Small mammals are much better represented in the forest. At least 23 species belonging to 11 families were recorded during the Wildlife Department survey. This includes 10 species of bat from both families.

  • Fruit bat (Pteropodidae)

  • Horseshoe face bat (Rhinolophidae)

  • Common palm civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus)

  • Pangolin (Manis javanicus)

  • Leopard cat (Felis bengalensis)

  • Slow loris (Nycticebus coucang)

  • Colungo or Flying Lemur (Cynopcephalus variegates)

  • Brush tailed porcupine (Atherurus macrourus)

  • Plantain squirrel (Callosciurus notatus)

  • Black Giant Squirrel (Ratuffa bicolor)

  • Creamy white giant squirrel (Ratuffa affinis).

 
 
BIRDS - 212 Species
 

 

Ornithologists will find plenty of inspiration here, as will butterfly and insect lovers. Birders will be delighted to note that 163 species of birds from 36 families were recorded during the survey. Notable resident species were:

 

  • Purple Napped Sunbird (Hypogramma hypogrammicum)

  • Moustached Babbler (Malacopteron magnirostre)

  • Emerald dove (Chalcophapas indica)

  • White Rumped Shama (Copsychus malabaricus)

  • Little Spider Hunter (Arachnothera longirostris)

  • Rhinoceros hornbill (Buceros rhiceros)

  • Argus pheasant (Argusianus argus)

  • Hooded Pitta

  • Flowerpecker

  • Olive Wing Bulbul

  • Magpie Robin

 

Some of the migratory species observed are:

 

  • Sultan Tit (Melanochlora sultanea)

  • Japanese robin (erithacus akahige)

  • Mugimaki Flycatcher (Ficedula mugimaki).

 
 
REPTILES & HERPETOFAUNA - 8 species
 

 
  • Edible giant frog (Rana blythi)

  • Silver lipped frog (Rana signata)

  • Toad (Bufo parvus)

  • Reticulated python (python reticulates)

  • King Cobra (Ophiophagus Hannah)

  • Water monitor lizard (Varanus salvator)

  • Rough neck monitor lizard (Varanus rudicollis)

  • Labi-labi (Soft-shelled Turtle)

  • Baning - Burmese Brown Tortoise

 
 
OTHERS
 

 

The fish and invertebrates of the park have not been well-studied, butterflies being the exception. The last comprehensive study was done by Hislop (1946), who collected 156 species, some of which were very rare.

 
 
 

PLACES OF INTEREST : NATURE & NATIONAL PARKS

Gunung Ledang - Wildlife Wonder & Floral

JOHOR - SOUTHERN REGION OF PENINSULAR MALAYSIA